What Causes Turbulence? Is It Dangerous For Plane Passengers

What Causes Turbulence? An in-Depth Look

Have you ever been on a flight and felt the plane suddenly dip and jostle around, as if it were being shaken by some invisible hand? If so, you’re likely familiar with the feeling of turbulence. But what is it that causes turbulence in the first place?

In this article, we’ll take an in-depth look at turbulence from its causes to how to manage it to what effects it has on a passenger’s experience. By the end, you’ll have a better understanding of how turbulence forms and why planes sometimes experience it during their journeys.

Turbulence is a normal part of flying, but that doesn’t mean we can’t learn more about it. So let’s get started!

What Is Turbulence, and How Does It Form?

Have you ever been on a flight and felt the aircraft suddenly shake, dip, or jolt? That’s turbulence, caused by invisible currents of air that disrupt the smooth flow of wind.
It’s important to note that turbulence isn’t dangerous it just feels a bit bumpy and uncomfortable for passengers.

The pilot is still in control of the airplane and will navigate away from areas with excessive turbulence. Turbulence occurs due to a variety of weather-related conditions which disrupt airflow patterns.

Here are some factors that cause turbulence:

  • Jet Streams: Strong winds near the upper troposphere affect the airflow around an airplane, creating turbulent patches over certain areas.
  • Mountain Chains: When warm air rises quickly over mountains, it creates turbulence as it passes over obstacles in its path.
  • Thunderstorms: Rapidly rising warm air in thunderstorms can create strong air currents which cause aircraft to shudder as they pass through them.
  • Temperature Changes: When two layers of air or different temperatures come into contact, the air movement between them can cause turbulence.

Types of Turbulence

Have you ever imagined why a flight can suddenly become turbulent? Turbulence is an unpredictable movement of air caused by various instabilities in the atmosphere, and it’s incredibly common. In fact, an estimated 40% of all flights experience some degree of turbulence.

There are two types of turbulence: Clear-Air Turbulence and Convective Turbulence. Clear-air turbulence is usually caused by different air currents or air pressure found at high altitudes, where there isn’t much to obstruct it. Convective turbulence, on the other hand, is often caused by thunderstorms and other forms of weather activity below the aircraft.

Clear-air turbulence is the most common type of airborne turbulence and can be dangerous for inexperienced pilots. It occurs when a plane encounters a pocket of air with different pressure or temperature than surrounding air masses. The result is usually short vertical movements that can catch even the best pilots off guard.

Convective turbulence, although less frequent than clear-air turbulence, tends to be more severe because it originates from thunderstorms and other extreme weather conditions at lower altitudes. These weather conditions cause violent updrafts and downdrafts which can cause significant shaking in the aircraft if not avoided correctly by the pilot.

Is Turbulence Dangerous?

So, is turbulence dangerous? In short, it can be. It’s one of the main causes of injuries to passengers and crew on airplanes, with some studies suggesting up to 20% of reported injuries are related to turbulence.

However, planes are designed to handle a certain amount of turbulence and they often exceed those expectations, thanks to computer models used in their design which make use of wind tunnel testing with real-time data from actual conditions in the atmosphere.

So even though it can be uncomfortable or scary to experience turbulence during your flight, rest assured that the chances of your plane actually being damaged by it are extremely low.
The type of turbulence that’s most dangerous is Clear Air Turbulence (CAT). This kind of turbulence is particularly hard for both pilots and air traffic controllers to spot because it happens at high altitudes in areas where there are no clouds or other visual cues.

For this reason, pilots need to be extra vigilant when flying through known CAT routes or regions where there have been past reports of CAT. If they suspect that they may encounter CAT on their route, they will usually take measures such as slowing down or changing altitude in order to minimize the effects on their passengers and crew.

Weather Conditions That Cause Turbulence

One of the main causes of turbulence is changes in temperature and weather conditions. The warmer temperatures create thermals, which are columns of rapidly rising air. When an airplane flies into a thermal, it can cause the aircraft to lose lift suddenly, resulting in turbulence.


Windshear is another form of turbulence caused by strong winds blowing against the direction of the plane. It’s particularly dangerous for aircraft when it occurs close to the ground during takeoff or landing, as this can have a dramatic effect on an aircraft’s ability to stay airborne and maintain safety.


When thunderstorms occur, they create powerful drafts and gusts that can easily destabilize an airplane as it passes through them. In addition to strong downdrafts that affect the plane’s speed and altitude, thunderstorms also create powerful wind shear, which can make steering difficult for pilots. Turbulence caused by thunderstorms is typically stronger than normal turbulence.

Turbulence is caused by a range of factors such as:

  • Changes in air temperature
  • Wind shear
  • Thunderstorms
  • Mountains or other tall structures in the area that cause air to be disturbed when passing over them

Avoiding Turbulence in the Air

There are a few tips and tricks to avoid turbulence in the air if you do find yourself flying.

Know Your Route

Knowing your route can help you be aware of areas of turbulence that may come up, especially if you know where the mountain ranges and large bodies of water are. It’s a good idea to plan an alternate route in case you face unexpected turbulence.

Fly During Non-Peak Times

If possible, try to avoid flying during peak travel times, like on weekends or during holidays. These tend to be busier airways and therefore have more potential for turbulence due to crowding. Aim for midweek morning or late afternoon flights when there is less air traffic and sun exposure that can cause heating differentials on the wings leading to rough skies.

Look for Visual Cues From the Pilot or Crew

Keep an eye on the pilot or crew for visual cues about spotting turbulence ahead like a change in their posture or seatbelts being fastened. This could indicate that they’re expecting turbulence soon and it’s best to be prepared by buckling up until things settle down again.

Turbulence can be scary, but following these tips can help you navigate it successfully:

  • Know your route
  • Fly during non-peak times, if possible
  • Keep an eye out for visual cues from the pilot or crew

Useful Tips for Flying in Turbulence

Flying in turbulence can be a bit nerve-wracking, but here are some useful tips that might make things a bit easier:

  1. Make sure your seatbelt is fastened. This goes without saying – it’s the first rule of flying, especially in turbulent air.
  2. Don’t try to look out the window for clues as to why you’re experiencing turbulence – instead, pay attention to the safety instructions from the crew and stay put.
  3. Wear comfortable clothing that won’t constrict your body should you experience intense dips and drops caused by drafts of air.
  4. If you tend to feel sick, be sure to take an anti-motion sickness medication beforehand, just in case.
  5. Try to relax and take deep breaths if you feel overwhelmed or anxious – it’s natural to feel a bit nervous, but doing this will help keep you calm in the face of turbulence.
  6. Check with your airline before departure if there are any winds that day that could cause turbulence on your flight path – this way, you can mentally prepare yourself before boarding and strap up for a safe journey no matter what!


In summary, turbulence is a normal part of flying and usually only causes minor discomfort. The best thing to do when turbulence is encountered is to fasten your seatbelt, sit still, and wait for the turbulence to pass.
It is important to keep in mind that turbulence can happen at any altitude, in any type of weather, to any type of aircraft.

While it is often associated with storms, it can also be caused by changes in air pressure or airflow, or by other aircraft. Knowing the causes of turbulence can help pilots better predict and avoid it, and ensure a safe and smooth flight for passengers.

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